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Last in the sequence of Ancient Magic is the use of magic in the early Christian world, its relationship with contemporary magic, and related texts. We will explore the origins of this magic, how it was used, and how it evolved over time. We will look at both religious and non-religious magic through a number of examples, both verbal spells and magical items, such as Aramaic incantation bowls.

Required Texts

Ancient Magic and Ritual Power by Marvin W. Meyer, Paul Allan Mirecki Quack, Cultural Plurality in Ancient Magical Texts and Practices Graeco-Egyptian Handbooks and Related Traditions by K. van der Toorn, The Theology of Demons in Mesopotamia and Israel: Imported Monsters: Baal, Beelzebub, Moloch, and Others by Douglas L. Penney, "By the Power of Beezelbub: An Aramaic Incantation Formula from Qumran (4Q560)" Journal of Biblical Literature 113 (1994): 627-650.
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